Where humans, in general, fail in their ability to think critically is in the area of controls. Endless cause and effect errors and wrong conclusions have resulted because of our failure to consider the many variables in a situation.
Recently articles have appeared of orangutans using iPads at zoos (Google “Apps for Apes” and “orangutan outreach”). Apparently, zookeepers are planning to “set up play-dates when the apes can use iPads to video chat with friends in other zoos”.
So, consider the question: Can the great apes actually learn to talk with us—to have a two-way communication—via an iPad or, perhaps, American Sign Language (ASL)? If they can, that would be absolutely extraordinary. Of course, extraordinary claims require extraordinarily careful research.[i] And, of course, “talk” has many meanings: dogs “talk” when they bark, growl, whimper and leave a message on a fire hydrant.
So let’s go back to the 1970s when researchers at the University of Nevada reported success in teaching ASL to an infant chimpanzee named Washoe. For the first time in history it was proclaimed that a non-human primate, a chimp (our closest evolutionary relative), had mastered a language in which it could actually communicate with humans. Washoe was reported to not only understand over a hundred different ASL sign gestures, but also to be able to also combine them in ways that suggested elementary grammar. For example, when a swan flew by, Washoe is reported to have signed the words “water” and “bird.”
Other researchers soon began teaching ASL and other sign languages to young chimps and even a gorilla with seeming success. Books, articles and even a film documentary soon appeared.[ii] Writer Michael Crichton even had a fictional gorilla named Amy extensively communicate with her keeper using ASL in his 1980 novel Congo, a novel I just finished reading.
However from the beginning a number of experts on language and animal behavior had remained skeptical of these extraordinary claims. But their criticisms regarding the many uncontrolled variables appeared only in technical journals. Then in 1979-1980 two books (Nim, 1779; Speaking of Apes, 1980) were published. Both authors presented a strong scientific case for the view that, although chimps have a remarkable memory that enabled them to master over a hundred different visual signs (dogs and horses can also master several dozen signs), they do not comprehend sign sequences in any way essentially different from a dog’s understanding of such commands as “Go get the newspaper.” These chimps have simply learned to do “clever tricks” for a reward. The authors documented, by extensively studying unedited video tapes, that:
a. Much of the signing by the trained chimps imitated parts of what the trainer had just signed. In many cases trainers were astonished to see how often they had unconsciously started a sign that the chimp had noticed and copied. For example, an uncut version of a Nova documentary called, “The First Signs of Washoe,” showed that almost all of Washoe’s multi-sign statements came after similar signs by trainers.
b. Most of the chimp’s signing were random combinations of signs plus the sign for “me” and for the chimp’s name—signs that fit almost all other signs and which they had learned were likely to be rewarded.
c. The trained chimps never learned the two-way nature of conversation as young children do. They continuously interrupted. The researchers had explained this away by attributing such interruptions merely to the chimps’ “eagerness to talk.”
d. Many times the chimps’ signs were wrong, vague, or only partially complete, resulting in the trainer either “reading in the rest,” or claiming that the chimp was either “making a joke”, “teasing”, or “being bratty.”
e. In the course of several years, these chimps put together signs in thousands of random ways. No researchers bothered to record all of the nonsense combinations produced by these chimps, such as “Banana eat Nim.” But every lucky hit such as “Nim eat banana,” was reinforced by cues of approval and went into the researcher’s records. So, claim the skeptics, these chimps just ran on with their hands until they got what they wanted.
f. Most damaging, deaf native users of ASL not only reported a failure in two-way communication with the trained apes, but also that these apes were not signing ASL at all, but were just making many gestures and partial signs. In retrospect, it seems obvious that a precondition for any experimental attempt to teach a true sign language to primates would beto ensure that the main contact people are all native speakers of that sign language. Otherwise it’s somewhat like a non-Italian-speaking trainer with an Italian dictionary trying to raise a human child who hasn’t yet learned a language to speak Italian.
The final conclusion was that when all the above variables were tightly controlled, the ability of chimps to have a two-way conversation with a human dropped almost to chance.
How could researchers have overlooked all of these seemingly obvious variables?
A. The “successful” chimp trainers had minimal, if any, training in controlling their unconscious facial movements, breathing rhythms, bodily tensions and so on that could cue the apes. The literature is full of “learned” dogs, horses, pigs, even ducks, that respond to the smallest unconscious cueing. “Talking” apes don’t perform well at all for skeptical strangers.
B. Psychologists refer to “confirmation bias” and “experimenter effect” for all of the insidious ways that researchers’ convictions can unwittingly deceive them and distort the data. The past few decades of research in cognitive, social and clinical psychology suggest that such biases may be far more common than most of us realize. Even the best and brightest scientists can be swayed by them, especially when they are deeply invested in their own hypotheses and the data are ambiguous.[iii] Consider:
a. Eminent scientists tend to be more arrogant and confident than other scientists. As a consequence, they may be especially vulnerable to confirmation bias and to wrong-headed conclusions, unless they are perpetually vigilant.
b. Researchers have a tendency to look for and perceive evidence consistent with their hypotheses and to deny, dismiss or distort evidence that is not.
c. Researchers who get positive results often have their careers advance faster and their work more likely funded. The pressure on scholars to disregard or selectively reinterpret negative results that could doom their careers is considerable.
d. Assistants are strongly motivated to produce results that will please an employer who pays their salaries.
e. If the work is controversial, there is a tendency for research teams to close off from the outside world and to form a cluster of insiders deeply suspicious of outsiders.
This brief coverage of “talking” chimps:
a. Was presented to emphasize how critically important (and often how difficult) it is to control all the variables in scientific experiments. One major variable is human fallibility. Thus the necessity of having independent impartial investigators reproduce the work.
b. Was presented to illustrate the power of the human mind to deceive itself. Such self-deception is particularly wide-spread in areas dealing with the paranormal, the supernatural, UFO’s and so-called alternative medicine “cures”.
c. Was not presented to demean the brains of apes and other mammals. The great apes are probably much smarter than we give them credit for. Each mammal species has a unique set of evolved mental capabilities that we are just on the frontiers of understanding. We “civilized” humans, for the most part, have seen ourselves as superior to other animals, an attitude that has resulted in wholesale indifference, carelessness and widespread species extinction.
d. Was not presented to indicate the last word. Much research will continue. Scientific knowledge grows through an openness to correct past errors.
Since the 1970s, much research has continued into great ape language, involving chimps, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans. In recent years, computer keyboards and iPads have been added to ASL. A quick Google search reveals that many researchers remain convinced that two-way communication has been achieved. Their conclusions, however, continue to be disputed.[iv] So far, at least as reported by the linguistics department at UCLA, no breakthroughs have been confirmed; no unequivocal evidence exists that apes can learn and use a sign language, which incorporates most of the significant features of human language.[v]
Finally, to quote eSkeptic: “Next time you see [a talking chimp] on a television documentary, turn down the sound so you can just watch what he is doing without interpretation from the ape’s trainers. See if that really appears to be language. Somewhere in the history of our kind there must have been the first beings who could rearrange tokens to create new meanings, to distinguish Me Banana from Banana Me. But the evidence from many years of training apes to press buttons or sign in ASL is that this must have happened sometime after we split off from chimps, bonobos and gorillas. Since then we have been talking to ourselves.”[vi]
Charles Rulon is an emeritus in the biology department at Long Beach City College.
[i]This article draws heavily from Martin Gardner’s excellent book, Science-Good, Bad and Bogus (1981).
[ii] Omni, Jan., 1980; Nat. Geographic, Oct. 1978; Koko, A Talking Gorilla (film-1979).
[iii] Scott O. Lilienfeld -Scientific American, Nov. 2010, p. 18.